Gwalior Fort – ग्वालियर किला
Gwalior fort – Gwalior Fort is situated near central Gwalior in central India of the state Madhya Pradesh. The fort divided into 2 parts with a safer texture. One part, the Gujari Mahal and the second mind temple. It built by Raja Man Singh Tomar in the 8th Century.
The Gwalior Fort in Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh, constructed in the 8th century. The height of this fort spread over three square kilometers is 35 feet. This fort is one of the wonderful specimens of medieval architecture. It is the main monument of Gwalior city which situated on the small hill called Gopanchal. This fort built with red sandstone one of the largest forts in the country and it is an important place in Indian history.
Gwalior Fort History – ग्वालियर किला इतिहास
In the recorded figures of historians, this fort was built in the year 727 by a local Sardar named Surya Sen, a resident of Sioniaia village, 12 km from this fort. Many Rajput kings have ruled this fort. After the establishment of the fort, Pala Dynasty ruled it for about 989 years. After this the pratihar dynasty ruled. In 1023, Mohammad Ghazni attacked this fort but he had to face defeat. After the long siege of 1196 AD, Qutbuddin Aibak subdued this fort, but in 1211 AD it had to face defeat. Then in 1231 AD, the founder of the Ghulam dynasty, Iltutmish, surrendered it.
After this, Maharaja Devvarman established the state of Tomar at Gwalior. The most famous king of this lineage was Mansingh (1486-1516) who built a palace for his wife, Mrigyanayani. From 1398 to 1505, this fort was ruled by the Tomar dynasty.
Mansingh had accepted Ibrahim Lodi’s submission during this period. After Lodi’s death, when Humayun called Mansingh’s son Vikramaditya in the Delhi court, he refused to come. After this Babar attacked Gwalior and took possession of it and ruled it. But Sher Shah Suri defeated Babur’s son Humayun and subdued this fort under Suri dynasty. After the death of Sher Shah, in 1540, his son, Islam Shah, changed his capital from Delhi to Gwalior for some time. After the death of Islam Shah, his successor, Adil Shah Suri, handed over the responsibility of protecting Gwalior to Hem Chandra Vikramaditya (Hemu) himself in Chunar. Hemu then won 22 battles between 1553-56, suppressing many revolts. In 1556, Hemu defeated Akbar in Agra and Delhi in the second battle of Panipat and established Hindu Raj. After this Hemu changed his capital and returned to Delhi and began to rule from the old fort.
Then Akbar invaded the fort of Gwalior and took it in his possession & converted into a prison. After the Mughal dynasty, Gwalior was ruled by Rana and Jats, and then the Marathas flooded their names.
In 1736 Jat king Maharaja Bhim Singh Rana deposited his supremacy on it and kept it under till 1756. In 1779 Maratha Chhatrapati of Sindhiya Kula won it and deployed the army in the fort. But it stripped by the East India Company. Then in 1780, its control went to Gond Rana Chhattar Singh who chipped it with the Marathas. After this, Maharaj Sindhiya got it back in 1784. Between 1804 and 1844 the control between Britishers and Sindhiya remained changing on this fort. However, after the Battle of Maharajpur in January 1844, this fort finally occupied by Sindhiya.
On 1 June 1858, Rani Lakshmibai captured this fort along with Maratha insurgents. But on June 16, the British army led by General Hughes attacked the busy insurgents in celebration of this victory. Rani Lakshmibai fought very well and did not let the Britishers capture the fort. But during this time he was shot and died the following day (June 17). In Indian history, it is described in the name of the battle of Gwalior. After the death of Lakshmibai, the forerunners captured the fort in the next three days.
Many kings in history have kept this control at different times on this fort. Gujari Mahal sung for Queen Mraganayani now known as a historical museum. The oldest documents related to “zero” were found in a temple on the way to the fort and on this route. It was almost 1500 years.
There is no proof of how long it took to build the fort of Gwalior. According to local residents, it was built by King Suraj Sen in the 8th Century. He built it as a blessing in the name of the monk named Gaulipa. It is said that the sadhu had given him holy water and he was relieved of leprosy.
The sage gave him the title of “Pal” and blessed and blessed. As long as they put this title along with their name, this fort will under the control of their family. The fort controlled by 83 successors of Suraj Sen Pal, but Karan of 84th descendants lost this fort.
According to historical documents and evidence, this fort in the 10th century but there no evidence that it existed before it.
But the carvings and structures built on the fort premises indicate its existence even in its 6th century; The reason for this that some of the documents found in the Gwalior Fort are mentioned in the form of a Sun Temple by King Mihirakula of Huna Dynasty. Gurjarra-Pratahasin had constructed “Temple of Talei” inside the fort in the 9th century.
This fort controlled by the Chandra dynasty’s Dewan Kachapaght in the 10th century. In the 11th Century, Muslim kings attacked the fort. Mahmud Ghazni took the fort for 4 days and returned the fort in return for 35 elephants, such a mention in Tabuti Akbari.
Ghurid Wajir Qutb al-Din Aibak, who later became King of Delhi Sultanate, won the fort after a long battle. After that, again in 1232, Eltumish again captured it on the fort of Delhi.
In 1398, this fort went under the control of Tomar Rajput Dynasty. Tomar King Man Singh made beautiful constructions inside the fort in the fort. Delhi’s Sultan Sikandar Lodhi attacked the fort in 1505, but he did not succeed.
In 1516, Ibrahim Lodhi, the son of Alexander Lodhi, attacked again, Man Singh Tomar sat down in the battle and the Tomar dynasty put arms after a year’s struggle.
After 10 years, Mughal emperor Babur took the fort from Delhi Sultanate but in 1542 the Mughals had to defeat the fort Gwalior Fort from Sher Shah Suri. Babur’s grandson Akbar conquered the fort in 1558. Akbar turned the fort into a prison for his political prisoners.
Akbar’s cousin Kamran kept in captivity and then sentenced to death. Aurangzeb’s brother Murad and Bhatijun Solaiman and traveller also sentenced to death in this fort. All these murders were in the Mana Mandir.
After the death of Aurangzeb, the control of this fort controlled by the Rana of Gohad. Maratha king Mahad Ji Shinde (Scindia) defeated this fort by defeating Gohad King Rana Chhatar Singh but soon he lost it to the East India Company.
In Gwalior, you can also see the Tansen’s Tomb which is located in Gwalior. It is near to his Sufi master Mohammed Ghaus tomb.
Tansen Samaroh a national music festival held in every year in held in the tomb of Tansen at Behat in December. The Award of Tansen Samman given away to the exponents in the Hindustani Classical Music.
Jain temple in Gwalior
In Gwalior, the Siddhachal Jain temples caves built in the century of 7th-15th. Inside the Gwalior Fort, you can find 11 Jain temples which dedicated to Jain Tirthankaras.
On Southside, 21 temples cut into rock with complicated carves of Tirthankaras. The Tallest Idol Rishabhanatha / Adinatha is the first Tirthankara with the height of 58 ft 4 inches.
British Rule on Gwalior – ग्वालियर पर ब्रिटिश शासन
On August 3, 1780, the British occupied Gwalior fort by Capt Pofam and under the guidance of Bruce, a half-night guerrilla war. In 1780, Governor Warren Hastings returned the rights to the fort to Gohad Rana. Four years later the Marathas captured the fort again.
This time the British did not interfere because they cheated with Gouhar Rana. Daulat Rao Scindia lost this fort in another Maratha-English war.
Between 1808 and 1844, this fort controlled by the British once and again in the hands of the British. After the battle of Maharajpur, in January 1844, this fort given to the British by appointing Maratha Scindia dynasty as its Diwan.
At the time of the 1857 revolution, about 7,000 soldiers in Gwalior rebelled against the company. At this time, Vastal Raja Jiaji Scindia retained his allegiance to the British. In 1858 the British again captured this fort. The Agrajas gave some princely states to the jihad but kept the fort occupied by them.
In 1886, the British controlled the whole of India, and for them, there was no special significance for this fort, so they gave it to the Scindia family. The Scindia family ruled this fort till the time of India’s independence (1947) and also produced many, including Jay Vilas Mahal.
The castle kept in good care and lots of constructions done in it, such as palaces, temples, water tanks etc. There are many palaces like Mana Mandir, Gujari Jahangir, Shah Jahan.
This fort is in the area of 3 kilometres and also 35 feet high. Its walls made from the edges of the mountain and also it has connected with 6 towers.
There are two doors in one north-east and one in the south-west. The name of the main gate the elephant bridge and the second gate named by Badalgarh. Manmadir Mahal located in the north-west, it built in the 15th century and it renovated in 1648.
And so, in this history, Gwalior Fort has been discussing quite a lot. History given to us is a priceless treasure whose significance is still as good as it is today.
See what’s in the fort
The fort and its fortifications looked after in a very good way. There are several historical monuments, Buddha and Jain temples, palaces (Gujari Mahal, Mansingh Mahal, Jehangir Mahal, Karan Mahal, Shahjahan Palace) present in it.
The fort mainly divided into two parts. Main fort and palace (Gujari Mahal and Man temple palace). These forts built by Raja Man Singh. He built the Gujari Mahal for his beloved Queen Mraganayani. Now the Gujari Mahal transformed into an archaeological museum. Rare sculptures kept in this museum, which is the first of AD. These sculptures obtained from the surrounding areas.
Apart from this, you can see the temple of Teli, Sahastrabahu temple built in the 10th century, Bhima Singh’s umbrella and Sindhiya school.
How to reach the Gwalior Fort
There are two ways to reach this fort. One called Gwalior Gate only be reached on foot. While on the other side you can also go by car at the Orai Gate. This fort is situated at an altitude of 350 feet. The main entrance of the fort known as Elephant bridge, which leads directly to the temple palace.
How to reach Gwalior
There are regular flights from Delhi, Bhopal, Indore and Mumbai for Gwalior by air & also connected to the major cities of the country by rail.
Distance from important cities
New Delhi: 327 kilometers
Bhopal: 430 kilometers
Mumbai: 1080 km
Chennai: 1867 kms.
Kolkata: 1261 Kms.
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